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|Chicago Coin Club|
|Volume 50 No. 2||February 2004|
For the last few years, the club has been fortunate in being able to meet in a beautiful room with excellent visual equipment, all at no charge. Unfortunately, the bank will need all of its meeting rooms for some in-house training programs, for at least the first half of 2004.
The club is looking for another downtown meeting place, but our space, budget, and late meeting time limit our options. Harlan Berk has offered us his upstairs space for our February 11 meeting; use the building entrance at 77 West Washington, and go to Suite 1320.
Presented by Robert D. Leonard, Jr. to our January 14, 2004 meeting.
The First Crusade was called by Pope Urban II in 1095, at the request of the Byzantine Emperor for the purpose of protecting Christian pilgrims. It started the following year with four states soon formed in the Levant: Kingdom of Jerusalem, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli (in modern Lebanon, not to be confused with the Tripoli in modern Libya), and the County of Edessa. The size of these states fluctuated over time, with a new crusade typically called following some major loss. Some of these states issued their own coins.
Edessa had been the first state created, and it was the first to be lost. Its loss resulted in the Second Crusade, but it never was recovered. The total victory by Saladin in 1187 resulted in the Third Crusade which recovered much territory. However, not everything was made as before; the restored Kingdom of Jerusalem did not include the city of Jerusalem, and the island of Cyprus became a Crusader state at this time. Richard the Lionhearted of Britain, Phillip II of France, and Frederick Barbarossa set out on this crusade, but Barbarossa drowned enroute.
The Fourth Crusade started in 1204 but never arrived in the Holy Land. It had started in Venice, but the forces captured Constantinople from the Byzantines who were in the middle of a civil war. The Byzantine emperor could not deliver on promises made to the crusaders, so the crusaders established the "Latin Empire" in the areas they soon controlled. Meanwhile, eastern Anatolia remained under Byzantine rule as the kingdom of Nicea, which recovered Constantinople in 1271.
The Crusader states hugged the eastern Mediterranean shoreline; Frederick II negotiated the return of Jerusalem, but the Crusader territory did not extend much farther. After the eastern coast was lost for the last time in 1291, Crusader states remained on Cyprus, the Greek mainland, and some islands off the cost of Anatolia. But those enclaves would fall over time.
The coinage of the Crusader era had simple denominations: only one silver coin (called a penny or denier) was used in western Middle Age Europe, while two gold coins (dinar and quarter dinar) were used in the Middle East. Evidence, in the form of silver coins from all over western Europe, indicates that the crusaders came from a wide geographic area. They used the coins they brought with them, but they were not adverse to using the gold coins of the Middle East; the first locally produced Crusader coins closely matched the dinar in appearance, but the design and purity changed over time.
Bob demonstrated this with four coins used in the Kingdom of Jerusalem:
Bob then used four coins from the County of Tripoli to demonstrate a parallel evolution:
Muslim influence also is found in the issuance of cut gold goins. Because the one denomination of Muslim gold coins had guaranteed fineness, they passed by weight; change was made by cutting pieces. The crusaders made special coins for cutting up; they had designs unique to this coinage, and Latin inscriptions to simplify identification.
The early pieces were pie-shaped, but later coins were rectangular (maybe a rounded edge) and were cut into rectangular shapes. It appears a number of designs were used, but they are hard to reconstruct; a hoard in the ANS allowed some reconstruction work. These coins were not issued whole; they were issued already cut into pieces! Bob knows of no parallel coinage.
The talk concluded with a demonstration of Crusader coins imitating Byzantine coins:
The originals and imitations have been extensively studied, especially the bead count on the king's figure. Although the beads were long thought to be the distinguishing feature between original and imitation, the nimbus was recently identified as the key distinguishing feature.
Crusader coins were primarily a working coinage, and to be successful in that purpose, they had to be readily identifiable and accepted by the locals. Even when items from the Crusader's religion finally were incorporated in the coin designs, the overall design still retained much of the local flavor as on the earlier coinage.
Each image has a scale in the lower-left corner, with the tics spaced 1 mm apart. Because the brightness and contrast were manipulated on a computer, the coloring of a coin's image differs from the coin's actual coloring.
The club's board met on January 21, and two items will be discussed at a future regular club meeting:
The club's 85th Anniversary Banquet will be held at the Holiday Inn, North River Road, Rosemont, IL on Saturday May 1st; in conjunction with the Chicago International Coin Fair. Some aspects have been finalized while others still need some attention.
Price is set at a break even of $39 per person, and the Holiday Inn will provide vouchers to park for $6 instead of $10. We hope for 45 to 50 people. The appetizers will be donated by Chicago Coin Company, and the plan is for an open Cash bar
300 invitations will be printed. A separate slip can be inserted into each invitation with the name of the speaker and subject when known. We will supply a sufficient quantity of invitations to Kevin Foley and ask him to mail them to the CICF dealers. Carl Wolf will locate a speaker.
The give away to attendees will be an encased postage stamp, with 85 to be produced. Sharon Blocker will do the write up. Bob Feiler will make the brass encasements and supply the Mylar for windows. Steve Zitowski will supply the special stamp for the encasement with the Athenian Owl design similar to that used for our 1000th meeting medals. Several people volunteered to help put the postage encasements together, and Bill Burd offered the use of his shop for the assembly of the encasements. Mark Wieclaw will take care of the printing cost. The committee agreed to use a Mylar flip and have a small folded booklet type of insert with a brief explanation of encased postage and an abbreviated story of the Chicago Coin Club.
|Date:||February 11, 2004 First session|
In a meeting room provided by Harlan Berk; at 77 W. Washington St., Suite 1320.
|Featured speaker:||Mark Wieclaw - The Silver Drachms of Parthia|
The ancient Kingdom of Parthia covered lands of what is today western Turkey, much of Syria and all of Iraq and Iran. The Parthian Kings issued coinage from the 2nd century B.C. through the 3rd century A.D. Mark Wieclaw has collected this series of ancient coins since 1981 and will cover the story of Parthian imperial portraits that imitated Roman coinage and how the reverse types are consistent with the Greek Seleucids who they displaced.
|Date:||February 28, 2004 Second session|
|Location:||at the Chicago Paper Money Expo (CPMX), which is held at the Holiday Inn O'Hare, 5440 North River Road, Rosemont, IL. No admission charge for our meeting.|
|Featured speaker:||Allen Mincho - Illinois National Bank Notes|
|Our February meeting will consist of two sessions: we will end the first session with a recess (instead of an adjournment), and we will reconvene for the second session at the CPMX.|
|February||11||CCC Meeting - Featured Speaker - Mark Wieclaw on The Silver Drachms of Parthia|
|February||27-29||10th Annual Chicago Paper Money Expo (CPMX) at the Holiday Inn O'Hare, 5440 North River Road, Rosemont. Admission is $5.|
|February||28||CCC Meeting - 1pm at the Chicago Paper Money Exposition,
which is held at the Holiday Inn O'Hare, 5440 N. River Road, Rosemont, IL.
No admission charge for our meeting.
Featured Speaker - Allen Mincho on Illinois National Bank Notes
|March||10||CCC Meeting - Featured Speaker - John Connelly on $1.00 U.S. Coins from Eisenhower to Sacagawea|
|April||14||CCC Meeting - Featured Speaker - Andy Plioplys on The Early Coinage of Lithuania, 1100 - 1400 AD|
|April 30-May 2||29th Annual Chicago International Coin Fair (CICF) at the Holiday Inn O'Hare, 5440 North River Road, Rosemont. Admission is $5.|
|May||1||CCC Meeting - 1pm at the Chicago International Coin Fair (CICF),
which is held at the Holiday Inn O'Hare, 5440 North River Road, Rosemont, IL.
No admission charge for our meeting.
Featured Speaker - Richard Giedroyc on Numismatic Issues from the House of Dracula and House of Frankenstein
|March||14||Donald R. Srbeny||1987|
|March||16||Joseph T. Tomasko||1984|
|March||25||David B. Silberman||1971|
|March||31||Andrew E. Michyeta III||1984|
All correspondence pertaining to Club matters
should be addressed to the Secretary and mailed to:
CHICAGO COIN CLUB
P.O. Box 2301
CHICAGO, IL 60690
|Paul R. Hybert|
|Mark Wieclaw||- President|
|Robert Feiler||- First Vice President|
|Jeff Rosinia||- Second Vice President|
|Other positions held are:|
|Robert Weinstein||- Secretary|
|Steve Zitowsky||- Treasurer|
|Paul Hybert||- Chatter Editor|
|Phil Carrigan||- Archivist|